Programs that specialize in the care of the teeth and associated structures in the oral cavity including the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the teeth and gums.
Programs that are staffed by specialists in the field of medicine that is concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community. Practitioners of family and community medicine provide comprehensive medical care including preventive services with particular emphasis on the family unit, in which the physician's continuing responsibility for health care is not limited by the patient's age or gender, nor by a particular organ system or disease entity.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for individuals who have diseases or injuries which affect the internal organs and require nonsurgical intervention. General internists provide continuing comprehensive care for common and complex multisystem illnesses in ambulatory care as well as hospital settings. Internists often function as primary care physicians who are the patient's initial point of contact with the health care system and who assume ongoing responsibility for maintaining the health of their patients and for providing treatment in case of illness including consultation with specialists when required.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and management services for people who have a physical disability, either individually or as the leader of an interdisciplinary team. Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists (also known as physiatrists) focus on restoring function using physical means rather than surgery. They prescribe medication, order assistive devices such as a brace or an artificial limb, recommend therapy (e.g., heat and cold, electrotherapies, trigger point injections, massage, biofeedback and traction) and set up exercise programs. Problems most commonly treated by physiatrists include acute and chronic pain, sports injuries (joint injuries, sprains and strains), injuries to the spine or spinal cord, neck injuries, tendonitis, pinched nerves, peripheral nerve injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome, traumatic brain injury, paraplegia, quadriplegia, arthritis and neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, polio and ALS. Physiatrists practice in rehabilitation centres, hospitals and private offices; and may have a broad practice or specialize in a particular area such as pediatrics, sports medicine, geriatric medicine or brain injury.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services for individuals who have diseases of or injuries to the feet. Conditions treated may include bacterial and fungal infections, skin and nail disorders, benign and cancerous tumours, congenital and acquired foot deformities and foot problems caused by illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. Treatment includes use of surgical procedures, casting or other forms of immobilization and the prescription of corrective devices, oral and locally injected medication and physical therapy. Included are services provided by podiatrists, chiropodists and other foot care specialists. Foot care may also be provided by nurses. In most Canadian provinces (such as Ontario), podiatrists are health professional specialists with a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree whereas chiropodists are college-trained professionals who provide practical foot care in Canada, particularly for older adults. In some Canadian provinces, such as Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, "podiatrist" is the term used for someone who has the qualifications of a chiropodist.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for people who have injuries or illnesses that were caused by participation in an athletic event or other recreational activity.
Programs that allow health care professionals to evaluate, diagnose and treat patients in remote locations using telecommunications technology. Telemedicine permits two-way, real time interactive communication between the patient, and the physician or other practitioners at a distant site. Some programs may also incorporate other forms of communication including transfer of medical information such as CT scans, MRIs, ultrasound studies, radiographic images and pathology images to medical personnel at another site for review and analysis. The technology is also being used in other related areas of practice (e.g., mental health, substance use disorders, gambling) as well as for teaching and remote caregiving purposes.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.