Programs within the formal education system or offered by outside agencies which utilize a variety of instruments to gather information about an individual's abilities, skills, understanding, knowledge, achievement, or educational, psychological or medical difficulties for the purpose of screening and selecting individuals for admission to an educational institution or program or for developing a plan of individualized instruction to help students who have exceptional needs overcome their learning problems.
Programs that provide advice and guidance for students who need assistance in choosing courses or areas for major study, preparing for a vocation or further education, or coping with learning problems, or who, because of lack of familiarity with Canada or other circumstances, require specialized support.
Programs that provide support for school personnel in the form of training workshops, study groups, demonstration lessons, mentoring, modeling of instruction, coaching and other similar types of assistance with the objective of enhancing the quality of teaching and improving learning outcomes. Included are technical assistance on the development, delivery and assessment of programs in specific content areas; information about best practices and current research; curriculum resources; instructional materials; assistance in analyzing student performance data; support in using technology tools to extend and support student learning; and other similar services.
Programs that enable students who demonstrate financial need to obtain the financial assistance they require to meet their educational and living expenses while in school. Most students receive a financial aid package which includes aid from a combination of sources that may include loans, scholarships, grants, work-study awards, and fellowships or assistantships for graduate students. Also included are programs that help current and former students make arrangements to defer, repay or obtain forgiveness for student loans.
Offices and centres on elementary/secondary school and college/university campuses that are responsible for basic administrative services such as recruitment, admissions, registration and enrollment, and housing; support for students including health and mental health services, assistance for students with disabilities, meal services and transportation; access to an ombudsman for students with grievances; and involvement opportunities through fraternities, sororities, school clubs and student government. Some services such as school supplies may also be provided by outside organizations.
Programs that help prospective students study for major entrance examinations for colleges and universities, placement tests, examinations that are prerequisites for acceptance into graduate level programs, military entrance exams, civil service and other professional exams, citizenship tests and other standardized tests. The courses, which may be available via the Internet, usually focus on the content areas covered by the examination, the format of the specific test, and test-taking techniques that can be used to increase the individual's speed and confidence. Practice questions may be available as well as essay evaluation materials, where applicable.
Programs that maintain lists of students, faculty members and other individuals who are available to tutor in a variety of subjects and which link individuals who are in need of this service with appropriate resources.
Programs that provide supplemental instruction for students who are having difficulty with their coursework or who want to get more out of their regular educational program.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.